Technical Guidelines

Frequently Asked Questions

1. What is a Coating?

They are products obtained from the processing of burning of clay-minerals, and may or may not be glazed. They can be applied to floors and walls, depending on their specific characteristics.

  • Easy to clean
  • Hygienic and anti-allergic
  • Waterproof
  • Durable and sturdy
  • Anti-flammable
  • Huge range of design and paving
  • Color Stability
  • Ceramic coatings, if properly specified and seated according to the recommended technique, will provide an environment with long lasting finish, beauty and tranquility.

The mass is the result of the mixing of several milled and homogenized minerals into a liquid mass (Babotina). Subsequently, this liquid mass is transformed into granulated mass, pressed, enameled, decorated and finally burned.

Like the mass, the enamel typology directly influences the properties of the product.

It is of fundamental importance, to be able to specify (choose the appropriate product) and set the product correctly, to have a good knowledge of the technical characteristics and performance of the ceramic coating, which will be applied to the floor or wall.

Currently ceramic tiles are classified by Water Absorption Groups in accordance with the ISO 13006 quality standard. The classification according to the absorption group is shown in the table below.

To ensure the maintenance of the original characteristics of the products and the quality of the ceramic products, it is important to take care of receiving and storing the coatings.

Click on the link below to know the main guidelines regarding the reception and storage of ceramic tiles.

To ensure the durability of the coatings and the satisfaction with the final result is necessary to follow the technical standards of settlement. Failures in the application can cause numerous problems, altering the expected final result, even compromising the aesthetic characteristics of the product.

For the setting of porous coatings of the water absorption group BIII (tile for wall application) Incepa recommends that the product should be seated with an ACI type mortar. It is important to contact the mortar manufacturers for better technical guidance.

For technical reasons, all ceramic products have small curvatures, which are typical of ceramic tiles. However, the degree of these curvatures is governed by national and international quality technical standards.

The products produced by Incepa have much more rigid curvature limits than these standards, which enables the customer to purchase products with the lowest market sealing joints and, consequently, greater satisfaction with the final result of the application.

They are joints that should be left between the floor plates. These joints aim to minimize the appearance of application imperfections (step formation and compensate for size variations between parts) and help accommodate base and ceramic plate movements.

The minimum laying joints for coverings (walls) and floors are shown in the table below.

In order to avoid the appearance of problems such as the formation of a “step” between the pieces or the displacement that may be caused by the movement of the base or due to climatic variations, it is important that some joints are executed during the application of the ceramic products

Due to the natural curvatures of the ceramic products Incepa recommends, in cases of misapplied application, that they be applied with maximum lashing of 15% (1 / 4 of the part) as shown in the following figure.


For application of wall to wall it is necessary that the product is seated with a special mortar for this type of settlement (overlapping).

It is important to contact the mortar manufacturers for better technical guidance in this regard.


It is the penetration of water inside the ceramic mass caused by the existing porosity. It directly influences mechanical resistance, ice resistance and impact. The lower the porosity, the lower the water absorption.

After the burning the ceramic product presents small spaces between the particles of minerals that compose it, called pores. The amount of pores that the dough (biscuit) presents is what determines the level of water absorption. The mass shall be classified by the technical standards according to the absorption

Classification of Water Absorption Groups according to ISO 13006.

The knowledge of the absorption group of a coating is an important data for the specification (choice of suitable product) for correct application in swimming pools, façades, cold rooms, saunas, outdoor areas, cold regions, etc.

IMPORTANT: Regardless of the use that will be given to the ceramic plate, the absorption group is so important that it must be printed on the packaging, as per the norm. ”

Greasing is the name given to cracks that occur on the glazed surface of the ceramic coating. The moisture expansion (UPS) is the major responsible for the cracking.

The ceramic coatings (wall) have a slight positive curvature (convexity) so that the enamel is under compression, thus avoiding the appearance of cracking in the future.

All floors Puro Grés and Porcelain tiles Incepa have high resistance to cracking due to very low moisture expansion.

The process by which the ceramic coatings pass to their manufacture can cause slight variations in the color of the product between a lot and another of manufacture. These small variations are separated by shades.

In order to obtain a satisfactory application it is important that in each environment, the same color is applied, ie it is recommended that the parts be purchased in a single color (single manufacturing lot). Therefore, it is recommended that the purchase of all the product that will be applied in an environment is made in the same purchase.

The tone code in use by Incepa always consists of two letters. Example: 01, 13, 22, 55 etc.

Important: Whenever the factory produces a product with a previously obtained tone, the code will be the same as that of the previous production (always respecting the existing standards).

In the carton label the codes are recorded identifying the various classifications of the product, including identifying the hue of the ceramic product.


In the ceramic tile production process, due to the typical characteristics of this material, there may be minimum size variations, which are separated as calibers (sizes).

The products produced by Incepa have limits of variation of size that are much more rigid than national and international quality technical standards, which enables the customer to purchase products with the smallest market settling joints and, consequently, greater satisfaction with the end result of the application.

Incepa uses characters to identify the tracks, one character for each size range:



In the boxes label the codes are recorded identifying the various classifications of the product.


It is the increase of the size of the ceramic plate by the prolonged contact with the humidity or with the marked variation of temperature.

IMPORTANT: The use of application joints between expansion joints and joints (see Important Recommendations – Wall Mounting Orientation) must be used both on the wall and on the floor to absorb these variations, thus avoiding problems such as detachment of the plates or structural cracks.


It is a product developed exclusively by Incepa where the decoration reaches almost totally the surface of the piece. This means that after applying the typical moldings of the products without flat edge disappear, effect until then only obtained with the rectification (cutting) of the product. The technique is applied only to wall products in 25 × 60, 33 × 45 and 33 × 60 formats without reliefs.

Check out some advantages of Flat Edge products:

– Best aesthetic finish in relation to products without Flat Edge

– Effect of the rectified product applied, with greater ease of handling

– Better cost-effectiveness compared to rectified products


Perfect sizes for floors and walls

In series production of ceramic parts there may be minimal size variations. When the design requires a uniform aesthetics, the rectified product is recommended and undergoes a perfect cutting process that guarantees the exact dimensions of the pieces.

Recognize when a product is rectified:


Perfect cut around the parts that allows precise alignment and allows the use of a minimum joint of 1 mm between the parts.

Dry joint, uniform appearance

It is the application of the product without spaces between the pieces. The Dry Joint provides the effect of a single plate, where the splice between the pieces is not noticeable. In the case of pellet products, all grooves in the middle of the parts must be grooved.

Grooved products:

To maintain the desired aesthetic effect, products such as Patina and Cittá should be sealed with a dry joint. In addition, all grooves must be grooved.

To maintain the desired aesthetic effect, products such as Patina and Cittá should be sealed with a dry joint. In addition, all grooves must be grooved.

It is a ceramic coating with thickness 30% thinner than conventional products. Ceramic tiles with only 6mm allow application on old coatings as well as new interior walls. With the application of the EASY WALL INCEPA on the old coatings there is no need for breakage or demolition. In addition to the reform being faster and more practical, it greatly reduces the volume of dirt and debris from the work. Not to mention the economy of time. Easy wall to wall of Incepa.

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